If the batter is hit by the ball, it can be one of five things: a base award, a ball, a strike, a foul ball, or an out, but no matter which it is, it is always a DEAD BALL if the ball hits the batter. Since it is a dead ball, adults can immediately check on the well-being of a batter hit by a ball in Little League.
Base Award (HPB)
Pitched ball hits batter and batter attempts to get out of the way, HBP, base award
Batter leans into pitch to get hit by ball. Dead ball, Ball One. You can see the umpire indicate "time" for the dead ball and then give the "you stay here"
mechanic and point at the batter's box
The batter swings at a ball that hits him. Dead ball, Strike Three. Runner stealing on play returned to first on dead ball.
Batter squares to bunt and gets hit by a pitch that passes through the strike zone. Dead ball, strike one.
If it hits the knob (or any part of the bat) before hitting the batter, it is a foul ball.
But if it hits the batter's hand (or any part of the batter) before hitting the bat, it is a HBP and base award.
The batter is not entitled to a direct path to 1st base if that is where the ball is hit (same goes for runners between bases). Whether or not this batter-runner is touched by the ball, he interfered with the catcher fielding the ball and is out for interference.
Batter's Interference is when the batter interferes with the defense's ability to make a throw or play (generally we are talking about the catcher as the player being interfered with).
Batter interferes with catcher's throw. If the batter keeps both feet in the batter's box, they generally cannot be called for interference. Since this is strike 3 the batter is already out and so the runner is called out as punishment for the interference.
A more typical example of batter interference. The batter is called out for interfering with the catcher's throw. Dead ball, runner sent back.
Runners interfering with throws
A runner is generally not guilty of interference if they are hit by or otherwise impede a fielder's throw, but there are special cases where they can be called for interference.
Running Lane Violation
On a ball hit in front of home plate, the batter is required to run in the lane. If the batter-runner is outside the lane and is hit by the throw or otherwise interferes with a quality throw, they are out for Interference. Again, interference is a dead ball and the runners go back to their bases.
An offensive player that is already out (or a coach) can be held liable for interfereing with a throw. Here the batter is already out after the popup is caught and when the throw hits him, the runner is called out for the retired batter's interference.
If an offensive player does something intentional to interfere with a throw, that is also interference. Here the runner puts his hand up to block the throw and the defense is given the out at first for this interference.
Another type of intentional act by a runner that is interference. Batter-runner is out and runner has to go back to first on dead ball.